There are many components when you talk about rules and regulations and laws. One of the components of law-making is the Bill. The literal definition of a bill is that it is an Act of Parliament. A bill is known as a new proposal for new legislation. It means that if a bill is approved by most people in the House of Commons, it will become an Act of the Parliament of the Law of the Land.
But if a bill needs to become a law, it has to go through different steps and approvals to become a law.
Types of Bill:
There are commonly three types of bills that you can find that eventually becomes the law. Following are the three bills mentioned with a complete description of them.
A Public Bill:
This is the most familiar and common type of Bill. Just like the name, this Bill is generally made for the public. The Public Bill deals with all the matters that are related to the public. The Government Minister of the state introduces this Bill, and hence, it is supported and reinforced through the government itself.
A Private Member Bill:
Private Member Bill is also made for the public in general. But instead of this Bill being introduced by the Government Minister, the member of the Parliament is not the minister of the state.
A Private Bill:
A Private Bill does not affect the public in general; instead, it is made for a small number of people. A Private Bill is made to affect a single local authority and affect only a very concise group of people.
How is a bill made into a law?
These are the steps or a flowchart related to how does a bill becomes low. Let’s discuss in detail how a bill becomes a law flowchart.
The Creation of a Bill:
Any member who has the idea of the Bill from Congress, either from the Senate or a Member of the House, can draft a bill. These ideas can from some personal matter of a Congress matter or even come from everyday public issues and the advocacy groups. The chief member of Congress that supports the idea of the Bill is called the sponsor. At the same time, some co-sponsors are the members who support the Bill.
Introducing the Bill:
After the Bill is created, the Bill will be launched to Congress. If a sponsor represents the Bill, then it will be launched in the House. Now the House Clerk allot a number for the Bill introduced in the House of Representatives. Whereas if a Senator supports the Bill then, it will be launched in the Senate. Here, the Senate Clerk will assign a number to the Bill introduced in the Senate.
The action of the Committee on the Bill:
After it is created, the Bill is sent to the Committee. The Committee is set to study the Bill precisely and is scrutinized. Both the House and the Senate have many committees that are made up of members of Congress. These members are interested in various subjects and topics such as health, public issues, international affairs, etc.
After careful examination of the Bill, there are hearings for Bills explanation that the Committee sets up. Hearings will allow sharing thoughts of other members such as the experts, executive branch, and other public officials. This will be recorded and will be kept documented. If there is no action taken on the Bill by the Committee, then it becomes dead.
Analysis of the Bill by the Subcommittee:
After the review of the Bill from the Committee, it is sent to the subcommittee group. The subcommittee is made so that the Bill can be further appropriately examined and carefully. There can be changes made in the Bill through the subcommittee, and the Bill can be brought back in the Committee through voting.
Marking of the Bill by the Committee:
After completing the Bill from the subcommittee and the Committee itself, the Committee will mark the Bill. There are amendments made to the Bill if needed before recommending it. If the Bill is supported by the Committee and the committee votes for it, then the Bill is reported to the floor. But if the Committee does not vote for it, the Bill will be rejected, and it will die. This process is called the order of the Bill reported.
Votes for the Bill:
After the Bill is floored, again voting is done through the members to approve the changes that might have been done to the Bill. Now the Bill is passed or rejected based on the voting of the chamber.
Referring the Bill to an alternate option:
If there is any difference between the Senate and House versions of the Bill then, then a committee for the conference is made. Here all the arguments are resolved, and again the voting takes place. If there is no agreement between the two parties, the Bill is rejected. But if there is harmony on it, then a report is made to recommend the ultimate Bill. The members of the Senate and the members of the House should accept the conference report.
Passing the Bill to President:
As soon as the members approve the Bill, it is forwarded to the President. If the President supports and approves it, then it is made into law. If the President does not take action while Congress is in session for ten days, the Bill is made into law. If the President does not approve the Bill, it will be vetoed.
Overruling the rejected Bill:
After the President rejects the Bill, it can be overruled by Congress. If two-thirds of the Senate and the House members pass the Bill, then the rejected Bill can be revoked by Congress, and the Bill becomes a law.
It is the whole procedure or route through which a bill becomes a law. Law then becomes the rules and regulations of the state that needs to be followed. And if the law is not maintained, it can cause penalties and punishment from the state’s government.